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Assessment is the practice of identifying student learning outcomes [1], measuring/observing the extent to which outcomes are achieved, and using that information to maintain or improve student learning.  Assessment is used by instructors at the course level, and by faculty and administrators at the program or institutional level.

There is a direct relationship between outcomes, learning activities, and assessment:

Course Outcomes    Learning Activities      Assessment

Based on the established practice of identifying outcomes for programs and courses at Red Deer College criterion referencing methods are preferred.

Formative and Summative Assessment

It is important to know the difference between formative and summative assessment to ensure that students are informed about how they are doing throughout a term/course.

Formative assessment
The purpose of formative assessment is to provide informal and ongoing feedback to the students to improve their learning. This feedback also helps instructors to improve their teaching. More specifically, formative assessments:

Formative assessments usually have low or no point value. Examples of formative assessments include asking students to:

Summative assessment
Summative assessments formally evaluate student learning at the end of an instructional unit by comparing it against some standard or benchmark (like an outcome).
Summative assessments usually have a high point value. Examples of summative assessments include:

Information from summative assessments can be used formatively when students or faculty use it to guide their efforts and activities in subsequent courses.

Alignment between Outcomes and Assessments

This chart provides examples of assessments and learning activities that align with each level of Bloom’s Taxonomy Cognitive Domain [2]. It is not an exhaustive list, but rather suggestions to spark thought around possible assessments and activities that align to different levels of outcomes.

Level of Outcomes

Examples of Assessments and/or Learning Activities

Level 1: Remembering
Activities require students to remember previously learned, appropriate content.

  • Facts
  • Terms
  • Concepts
  • Matching Questions
  • Multiple Choice Questions
Level 2: Understanding
Activities that require students to grasp the meaning. States in one’s own words.

  • Summarize films, readings, speeches
  • Describe theories, events, processes
  • Find or identify examples or illustrations of a concept
  • Paper/Essay/Assignment
  • Exam/Quiz
  • Problem Sets
  • Presentation in Collaborate Ultra
  • Concept Maps
  • Discussion Boards
  • Journal
  • Google Doc
  • Student Created Video
Level 3: Applying
Activities require students to use information in new situations. Problem-solving.

  • Use procedures to solve or complete tasks (familiar or new)
  • Problem Sets
  • Performances
  • Prototyping
  • Simulations
  • Exam/Quiz
  • Assignment
Level 4: Analyzing
Activities require students to break information into component parts; facts versus inferences.

  • Discriminate between relevant and irrelevant parts
  • Determine how elements function
  • Determine values, biases or underlying intent
  • Case Studies
  • Critiques
  • Labs
  • Papers/Essay/Assignment
  • Projects
  • Debates
Level 5: Evaluating
Activities require students to make judgments based on criteria.

  • Test, monitor, evaluate, critique readings, performances, or products using established criteria or standards
  • Critiques
  • Problem Sets
  • Assignments
  • Projects
Level 6: Creating
Activities require students to put parts together to create or form a new original item with meaning.

  • Make, build, design, or generate something new
  • ePortfolio
  • Research Projects or Essays
  • Musical Compositions
  • Performances
  • Broadcasting
  • Podcasting
  • Blogging
  • Wiki-ing
  • Videocasting
  • Magazine creation

(Adapted from Carnegie Mellon University’s Why should assessments, learning objectives, and instructional strategies be aligned? [3])


Rubrics benefit both instructors and students. By using a rubric:




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Updated April 1, 2020